The above is a schematic illustration of stereo vision using parallax to accurately measure distance. As shown in Figure a, the simultaneous imaging of the scene by the left camera and the right camera has the same imaging principle as that of human eyes. In the imaging of the left eye and the right eye, the position of the same object is different. As shown in Figure b, if we compare the images of the right and left eyes, we can find that the position of the near object changes sharply between the right and right eyes, while the position of the distant object differs little between the right and right eyes.
This visual difference is what we call parallax, and the distance between each point in the world coordinate system and the stereo camera can be transformed by parallax.